Heraclitus of Ephesus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom.

Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers. Everything changes and nothing remains still … and … you cannot step twice into the same stream. 

Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: a “dry” soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul “moist”, and he considered mastering one’s worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul’s fire.

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